Friday, June 10, 2022

Will in vitro meat be the new SCP?

 In the 1960s, several companies began development of Single Cell Protein (SCP) as a protein source for human and animal feed.  SCP refers to protein produced by microorganisms, such as bacteria, yeasts and unicellular algae.  This was not a new concept and can be traced back at least as far as 1936.

My first job was as a fermentation experimental officer at ICI in the UK, helping to develop the ICI Single Cell Protein Process.  Several other companies were developing SCP for human and animal consumption.  ICI intended to produce 1m te/yr by the 1990s; Shell was working on producing SCP as a by-product of gas oil dewaxing.  Several other processes were based on mycoprotein from Fusarium sp.- ‘Quorn’, and algae.  These projects involved very significant effort and investment; it has been estimated that by 1983, the main players had invested in R&D a staggering $US 2.9 x 108 in today’s terms.

Image shows the ICI production fermenter for SCP.  60m tall with a capacity of 3,000m3.   I do not own the copyright of this image.

The new processes were beset with problems.  Bacterial cells contain relatively large amounts of RNA, which can result in gout and kidney stones in consumers, as purines increase plasma uric acid, so RNA reduction was required.  Some products had undesirable taste, and considerable downstream processing was required to produce acceptable texture and mouthfeel. Consumer acceptance of food made from bacteria was also difficult to achieve.  However, one of the greatest hurdles was the scale of operation required and the resulting cost of the product.  Most of these processes, while being technological marvels, were not commercially successful.  In fact,  as far as I am aware, the only product now on the market is Quorn.

Against this background, we see in vitro meat (IVM) or cultured meat, being developed as a sustainable food.   It is also referred to as ‘Lab-grown meat’, illustrated by lumps of tissue apparently grown in Petri dishes, though this is perhaps somewhat misleading, as the scale of operation to produce sufficient product to be economically viable would require a facility similar in size to a modern dairy plant. To produce IVM, stem cells are collected from living animals and cultured in a reactor, using suitable culture media, which must be made up of food-grade components.  Typically, vitamins, antibiotics, growth factors, such as calf serum, horse serum and chicken embryo extract are included, (though I have seen a recent report stating that calf serum is not necessary). The stem cells will differentiate into muscle cells under the influence of certain hormones.  Obviously, strict sterility must be maintained, or contaminating bacteria will grow in the highly nutritious medium.  The developing cells will require a supply of oxygen, carbon dioxide will be produced in the metabolic processes, and heat will have to be removed.

Merely getting the muscle cells to grow is only part of the process - Since consumers want something that resembles  meat as closely as possible, some form of three-dimensional scaffolding is usually required for the cells to fuse together to form organised tissues.

For many people, the decision to purchase IVM will come down to taste, texture, appearance and cost.  Estimates suggest that IVM will be twice the price of farmed meat.   I saw recently a report that a burger pattie could cost around $11.35  I will be happy to eat IVM, but not if the product costs a lot more than my favourite grass-fed beef fillet steak.

Thursday, July 8, 2021

Got the munchies?

 Hands up anyone who, at any time during their lifetime, has scraped the cake mixing bowl and eaten the residues, or eaten raw cookie dough.  Yes, I see a lot of you with your hands up!  In a survey by Ardent Mills, Minnesota, 73% of respondents admitted to eating raw homemade cookie dough and 57% allowed children to lick the bowl and spoon after mixing cakes, while 65% admitted to eating store-bought cookie dough without cooking.  In a 2009 outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 food poisoning in 30 U.S. states, 77 patients, mostly young females contracted the illness and 35 were hospitalised.  A common factor revealed in the investigation was consumption of commercial raw cookie dough produced in a single plant.  As a result, 3.6 million packages of ready-to-bake cookie dough were recalled.

I used to beg my Mum not to use a spatula to scrape all the mixture from the bowl.  Mum didn’t know much about food safety; she had no formal training and over the years had learned how to bake.  Many younger people are probably in the same boat.  Most of us know that you can possibly pick up Salmonella food poisoning from eating undercooked eggs or chicken, and that the foods likely to give you food poisoning include leafy greens and sprouts, raw shellfish and raw milk, though the latter usually ignites a flame war if you publish comments.

So if you are asked why you should not eat raw cookie dough, what will you say is the risk?  Salmonella in the uncooked eggs, right?  What about the flour?   In 2016, ten million pounds of raw flour were recalled owing to contamination with Escherichia coli.  That year, the U.S. FDA and Centres for Disease Control and Prevention investigated infections by E.coli O121 occurring across the country.  Some serotypes of this bacterium can produce Shiga toxins.  A great deal is now known about Shiga toxins, but for our purposes here, we can say that ingestion of the toxin results in abdominal pain and watery diarrhoea, but may also cause haemorrhagic colitis, which is far more serious.  

The April 23 edition of Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report discussed multi-state outbreaks of E. coli O26:H11 infections linked to raw flour in 2019. The investigators initially thought that ground beef was the source of the infection - patients interviewed reported eating ground beef and leafy greens.  However, by the use of modern microbiological analytical techniques - Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis and Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing - they were able to show  that the STEC O26:H11 isolates were different from those strains that had caused the ground beef illnesses in 2018.

How does flour, which is dry and doesn’t support bacterial growth, come to be involved in E. coli food poisoning transmitted in raw cookie dough?  Wheat flour is grown outdoors and may be contaminated from soil or birds and animals.  Cattle and deer have no cell receptors for Shiga toxin, so may carry the toxigenic bacteria without ill effect.  The milling process generally doesn’t include a lethal process step, so E. coli and Salmonella can survive into the finished product.  These vegetative cells are killed during cooking, but may be present in raw dough and cake batter.

Heat treatment of flour has been used in the past to destroy pathogens, but is expensive and has a negative impact on the properties of gluten, potentially making the flour unsuitable for baking.  Various other treatments have been proposed, including cold plasma, electron beam and gamma irradiation, but these methods may meet with consumer resistance.

A company based in Ontario, Canada has recently developed an organic, non-thermal treatment for flour that is a liquid added at the tempering stage of milling.  However, as far as I am aware, this treatment is not yet used in commercial flour production.

What about making home-made raw cookie dough safe?  It is extraordinarily difficult to find information on how to pasteurise raw flour at home to make raw cookie dough treats.  One blogger has described home pasteurisation of flour, using a 1200 watt microwave oven to heat the flour to 71C with a 55 second treatment.  She based this treatment on advice from FDA and I estimate that the flour receives an F0 of around 4.  

FDA is now pushing the message “Don’t eat any raw cookie dough, cake mix, batter, or any other raw dough or batter product that is supposed to be cooked or baked” and “Follow package directions for cooking products containing flour at proper temperatures and for specified times”.
Indeed, some packages of flour in US now have a label warning consumers to “Cook before sneaking a taste”.

Still want to risk it?

Subscriber e-mails discontinued

 If you have been receiving e-mail notification of new posts on this blog, you need to be aware that recently, the FeedBurner team released a system update announcement that the email subscription service will be discontinued in July 2021. 

 The blog will still exist and you can search earlier posts, but you will not be notified of new ones.

This is not under my control, but I apologist for any inconvenience or irritation that this causes you. 

Please consider bookmarking this blog and check it occasionally

Regards,  John

Thursday, November 12, 2020

Hello Fresh fish causes food poisoning in New Zealand

 At least three people have been treated in hospital for scombroid poisoning after eating Trevally from a meal kit supplied by Hello Fresh.

Histidine in the fish tissue can be converted to histamine by histidine decarboxylase, found in Escherichia coli, Morganella morganii, Proteus, Pseudomonas and Klebsiella species, which may occur naturally in the gills, skin and gut.  If the fish is not properly handled after being caught and during transport and distribution, allowing the temperature to rise for an extended period, these bacteria can grow and produce sufficient histamine to cause an allergic reaction in the consumer.  

Scombroid poisoning was originally named because Scombridae fish naturally contain higher levels of histidine.  The range of symptoms varies, but includes nausea, headaches, vomiting and diarrhoea and possibly itching and a burning sensation in the lips.

Unfortunately, the fish may not appear to be spoiled and the enzyme remains active even after the bacteria have been killed,  continuing to produce histamine under cold storage.  Activity can  resume when frozen fish is thawed.  Histamine cannot be destroyed by cooking, so control of storage temperature is essential throughout the food chain.

Friday, September 4, 2020

Nothing new under the Sun

 Sorry!  That was a click bait title.  However, as far as food poisoning goes, there really is very little that is new - the same old suspects keep turning up.

I've written about Clostridium botulinum before (and you can find those posts by searching the labels).  It has now caused food poisoning in Vietnam, this time in Minh Chay pate products, which have all been recalled.  The outbreak is reported in Food Safety News.  The article includes a photograph of the product, which is packed in screw capped jars and possibly cans.

The Department of Food Safety, Ministry of Health, inspected the premises and found 'sanitary issues' with cleaning and drainage.  The factory was instructed to cease production until the problems were fixed.

There is insufficient information in the article to make definitive pronouncements on the causes of the contamination, but some reasonable arguments can be made.  C. botulinum releases a toxin when it sporulates, and for this it must grow.  Since the bacterium is anaerobic, it requires the absence of oxygen.  It appears, therefore, that the pate was contaminated during manufacture, possibly from the unclean factory environment, and the organism then grew in the sealed containers.  The article doesn't state whether the product was hot-filled, or heat processed in the containers.  In the former scenario, the spores of C. botulinum could germinate and grow in the product, eventually leading to toxin production.  If the containers were heat processed after filling, it is possible that contaminated cooling water leaked into the containers through faulty seams or seals.

The toxin binds in the nerve synapses and prevents the secretion of acetyl choline, thus preventing nerve impulse transmission.  This usually causes respiratory paralysis, so patients need support to breathe.

Interestingly, if you search for 'Botulin toxin' on-line, the first five hits refer to Botox, the cosmetic treatment to reduce frown lines and crows' feet.  Food poisoning is mentioned almost as an afterthought.

Thursday, August 27, 2020

Infection transmission

 The COVID-19 pandemic should have got us all thinking about infection transmission and control.  Yet, the virus continues to spread.

I remember the pretty much the first laboratory class we did in Microbiology 101 was a demonstration of how infection transfers within a community.  There were 24 students in the class.

First, everyone wiped their hands with a paper tissue, one of which had been contaminated with a bacterial culture.  This organism was Serratia marcescens, which produces a bright red pigment when grown under the right conditions.  A sequence grid was set up, so that everyone shook hands with one other class member and then plated their hand onto an agar plate.

The second round of hand shakes was then undertaken with different class members, without first washing our hands, and, again, hands were plated.  This sequence continued until, by the end, everyone had shaken hands with about 10 classmates and plated their hands.

The plates were incubated, and a couple of days later were examined for the presence of the bright red colonies.  Scoring the positives against the sequence grid, it was very obvious how the infection had spread throughout the class.  Not everyone became infected initially, but the infection spread exponentially and after six rounds, everyone in the class was positive.

How is this relevant to COVID-19 spread?  This virus is supposedly spread predominantly by droplet inhalation.  However, an individual may become infected by touching their face with infected hands or perhaps by rubbing their eyes.  The virus, like the Serratia, might be picked up on the hands from surfaces like door handles, wash basin surrounds, pens, or from shaking hands with a carrier etc.  "OK, I don't touch my face and eyes".  Are you sure?  I used to lecture to classes of up to 130 students and occasionally counted how many were touching their face at any one time.  (Yes, I know, I had put half of them to sleep and their heads were in their hands).  Up to 60% of the class touched their faces and noses and eyes.  A similar surreptitious survey found that up to 30% of students left the toilets without washing their hands!

The take-home message here is - "Wash and sanitise your hands regularly - many times a day; avoid hand shaking and kissing 😞 and if you are sick, STAY HOME.  In fact, if you don't have to mix with people, stay away from them."  Like in our first year experiment, there was no indication that any particular person was carrying the infection until two days later when the test results were available.

Update:  As of today, 10th July 2021, we have seen over 4 million people die of COVID-19 around the world and it is now obvious that the primary route of transmission is by inhalation of virus particles.  Mask wearing significantly reduces the spread of the virus by trapping droplets and by wearing a mask, you are protecting others.  In countries where people still gather together in crowds, the virus is spreading very fast and the delta variant, which is highly infectious, is ripping through the population.

If you are reading this update and you have the option, please GET VACCINATED, both for your own safety and the protection of your friends and family.

Saturday, July 25, 2020

Should we switch to plant-based proteins?

While New Zealand was in lockdown, I had ample opportunity to think about life, the universe and everything.  Specifically, I was thinking about plant-based protein as human food.  Recently, meals at home have exposed me a variety of new dishes and some of these were plant-based.  I’m setting out these thoughts in the hope that they will stimulate conversation between readers.

First, there is a strong drive from some members of the community to change from eating animal proteins to eating plant-based protein meals.  Some of this is a concern for the welfare of animals and some is ideological.  Probably the primary driver is health, but the second driver is sustainability and environmental concerns around our planet and its long term health.  Is it really more healthy to eat only plant proteins?  Is it truly better for the environment?  There is concern that rivers and waterways are being polluted by our raising of animals for meat and milk, but will the production of plant proteins result in greater use of fertiliser and hence increase runoff?  Methane emissions will decrease, but growth of legumes may ultimately result in increased nitrate leeching. Of course, traditional farming mixed plants and animals - the vegetables etc. were grown on land fertilised by animal manure, but if we no longer raise animals, that cycle will be eliminated. 

What is the point of trying to reproduce the taste, appearance and texture of products such as burgers, but using plant proteins?  Really, that is just a sop to confirmed meat eaters.  As I understand it, The Impossible Burger is more expensive to produce than the meal it is trying to emulate.  Is there going to be resistance to the use of colours and flavours to simulate animal products?  The key ingredient that gives the Impossible Burger its meaty taste and makes it bleed like meat when cut is soy leghemoglobin, derived from genetically engineered yeast.  Production of the yeast by fermentation requires inputs of industrially manufactured, chemically synthesised ingredients.  The safety of these inputs will be subject to regulatory approval and their use will not be universally accepted.  Ikea is introducing a non-meat version of its traditional Swedish meatball  and claims that conversion of about 20 per cent of its meatball sales to plant balls would mean around 8 per cent reduction of the climate footprint for the food business at Ikea.  Meanwhile, KFC has announced that it is collaborating with 3-D Bioprinting Solutions to develop chicken nuggets made with cultured chicken cells and plant material.  The thinking of food technologists and new product developers is way ahead of the general population.

We all require iron in our diets, young or pregnant women particularly.  The recommended daily allowance for vegetarians is 1.8 times higher than for people who eat meat. This is because heme iron from meat is more bioavailable than non-heme iron from plant-based foods, and meat, poultry, and seafood increase the absorption of non-heme iron. This is just one aspect of changing from eating animal protein to exclusively plant-based protein.  There is any amount of information on the Internet regarding iron requirements and sources, but caution is required before believing everything!

I really have no answers for these questions, but I think that the proponents of moving to an exclusive plant protein diet haven’t thought it through.  Here are some questions that I’d like answered:

Does New Zealand have sufficient agricultural land to produce all the plant protein we need to feed the population, assuming that we all move to consuming it?  Much of our farming is on hill country.  This is not suitable for crop production.

Will the energy inputs for food production increase or decrease?  We will need diesel to harvest the crops and energy to dry some of the products.  With the shutdown of the Tiwai Point Aluminium smelter, there may be an opportunity to divert some of the surplus electricity to processing of plant proteins, but will that be enough or even practical?

What of our exports?  In 2019, dairy, eggs and honey earned NZ$16.3 billion and accounted for 27.9% of total exports, while meat earned NZ$8.03 billion - 13.9% of total exports.  If meat and dairy were no longer produced here, that would be a loss of nearly 42% of our exports.  In the current post COVID-19 era, it would be hard to replace those contributions.